The Sheikhal (var. Sheikhaal, Sheekhaal, Sheikal, Shikal) (Arabic: شيخال) or Fiqi Omar is a Somali clan whose members inhabit both Somalia and Ethiopia, with considerable numbers also found in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) in Kenya.
Sheikhal people and Harari people are very closely related, as they are immediate descent from the same ancestor. Historically, Hararis and the Sheikhal have had close ties, and many Hararis have intermarried with Sheikhals. Some Sheikhals, particularly those belonging to the Aw Axmed Loobage subclan, are found south and central somalia kenya and Uganda . However, other members, such as those from the Aw-Qutub subclan, have also significant population in Ethopia, kenya and Somalia.
The total population of Sheikhal clan in Somalia, Ethopia and Kenya are estimated between 1.5 million to 2 million people.
The Sheikhal clan traces its ancestry to Fiqi Omar, also known as Omar Al-Rida, who in turn traced his lineage to the first caliph, Abu Bakr (Sayid Abubakar Al-Sadiq). According to Richard F. Burton, Faqi Omar crossed over from Arabia to Eastern Africa ten generations prior to 1854, with his six sons: Umar the Greater, Umar the Lesser, the two Abdillahs, Ahmad, and Siddik.
Aw Axmed Loobage
Aw Cismaan Gandarshe
Jaziira, also known as Baa Xassan
Seka-when in Afar Region
Wardiiq, in Ethiopia and Djibouti.
Dr. Ali Bashi Omar Rooraaye, former member of Somali TFG Parliament, doctor, and current Chairman of Al-Islah, a Muslim organisation in Somalia.
Prof. Ali Sheikh Ahmed, founder and president of Mogadishu University, and former president of Al-Islaah.
Dr. Sheikh Ibrahim Dusuqi, Muslim scholar, cardioloigist and former speaker of Al-Islaah.
Major General Mohammed Hussein Ali, former Commissioner of the Kenya Police.
Major General Mohamed Ibrahim Liqliiqato, former chief-of-staff of Somali armed forces, speaker of Somali parliament, and first Somali ambassador to Soviet Union.
General Mohamud Sheikh Abdullahi (Geelqaad), head of Somali army forces that captured Dire Dawa, Ethopia in 1977 and head of the Ahmed Gurey Military Academy until 1990.
Sheikh Mohamed Ahmed Omar, (Garyare), Muslim scholar living in Canada, the founder of Al-Islah Islamic Movement in Somalia, and the first Somali graduate from the Madina Almunawarah Islamic University in Saudi Arabia. .
Sheikh Abadir Omar Ar-Rida one of the Harar Amirs mentiond in List of Harar Amirs.
Abadir Umar Ar-Rida (probably fl. 13th century AD) was the most celebrated[by whom?] saint of Harar, Ethiopia. Abadir is the main figure in the Fath Madinat Harar, unpublished history of Harar in the 13th century AD. Here we are told that Abadir with several other saints came from Hijaz to Harar in 612H (1216 AD) where he was elected as sheikh by the surrounding tribes. In the following years he fought several battles against King Karbinal bin Mahrawal, his son Jurniyal, daughter Markanis and brother Sayadar. Abadir is also mentioned in the lists of amirs of Harar, first 391-405H (1000–1014), Second 405-411H (1014-1021 AD), Third 458-459H (1065-1067 AD).
The genealogy of Abadir lists twenty-four generation Abu-Bakar Al Saddiq and Abadir. In Harar, several songs in veneration of Abadir are still sung. Inside the walls of Harar not only in the tomb of Abadir visited by Harari and galla of the neighbourhood,but also the betta arrus where he is said to have married a Harari women.
The fame of Abadir extends far beyond the harari region in Muslim Ethiopia. Abadir is the ancestor of sheikhaal tribes.
Qallu is a name in which the people (person) who are believed to be the descents of Sayyid Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, the first Caliph of Islam, are known in East Eastern Ethiopia, Somalia and Djibouti.
Table of Contents
1 Why They are Called Qallu?
2 Variations in the Descriptions of Qallu
3 Geographical Dispersions of the Qallu
4 See also
6 External links
Why They are Called Qallu?
Qallu is a common name known in Oromo, Somali, Harari, Afar traditions because there is a clan called “Qallu’’ within each of these ethnic groups. However, it is the Oromos or the Somalis who enthusiastically refer to the name. . It is said that “Qallu” to mean "people of the religion", and it describes the Qallu’s main occupation in their societies. That means in the past, most of the persons who belong to Qallu clan were dominantly the teachers of Islam in the areas that they reside. 
Variations in the Descriptions of Qallu
The Qallu inhabit Hararghe, Somali Region, and Dire Dawa as well as the Republics of Somalia and Djibouti. The Qallu’s in Ethiopia trace back their genealogy mostly to a man called “Aw Omar Ziyad”, and then to “Aw Qutub”, and Aw Abadir Umar Ar-Rida , a scholar to whom the Harari’s refer as the Patron Saint of Harar. And all Qallus in Ethiopia claim they have the same blood with Sheekhaash , a clan whom Sir Richard Burton repeatedly mentioned in his book titled First Footsteps in East Africa. . However, in Somalia, there is a little bit unclear tradition of the Qallus. Some people categorize them under the well known Sheekhaal clan (here not Sheekhaash as they are called in Ethiopia.). Others group them under Fiqi Omar clan. (In Ethiopia , Sheekhaash and Faqih Omar are the same, the latter is only an implication of their ancestral father)
Geographical Dispersions of the Qallu
Richard Burton describes that Qallu (Sheekhaash) is dispersed among its brothers (other clans) and they can be found from Ifat up to Ogaden. . This is an exact description of the highly reverend clan of Qallu. Today, as Burton witnessed 150 years ago, we can find the Qallu from Somlia up to Wello. However, the highly concentrated communities of the Qallu can be found in the following areas.
• in Babille, Deder, Jarso and Gursum in East Hararghe;
• in the Walled City of Harar;
• in Shinile Zone and in Dire Dawa chartered city;
• in Jijiga woreda of the Somali Region;
• in Habro , Gubba Qoricha, Qunni , Chiro, Boke and Mieso woredas of West Hararghe, Zone.
• Siddiqis in the Horn of Africa
• Abu Bakr
• Shaikh Siddiqui
• Shaikhs in South Asia
1. ↑ 1.0 1.1 Ulrich Braukämper: Islamic History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia. Collected Essays, Göttinger Studien zur Ethnologie 9, 2003, ISBN 978-3-8258-5671-7, pp.112-123, 117
2. ↑ Richard Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, 1856; edited with an introduction and additional chapters by Gordon Waterfield (New York: Praeger, 1966), p. 165
3. ↑ Richard Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, 1856; edited with an introduction and additional chapters by Gordon Waterfield (New York: Praeger, 1966), p. 165